National Disaster Management Authority Government of India
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Maharashtra

Hazard Profile - Flood, Drought, Tsunami

Control Room - 022-22027990, Fax: 022-22026712

CHIEF MINISTER

Sh. Devendra Fadnavis

List of DCs and SPs Maharashtra-

Districts Of Maharashtra


S/No

District

Telephone/Fax No

Res No

Mobile no

1

Aurangabad

06186-223167

06186-223168

9473191261

2

Bandra(Mumbai Suburban district)

022-26514742/26556805

-

9833620113

3

Nagpur

0712-2564973/2560543

0712-2561755

9975386219

4

Pune

0202-6114949/6123928

0202-6361818

9423688760

5

Akola

0724-24244442/2435007

0724-2241441

8806808111

6

Chandrapur

0717-2255300/22255500

071722255200

9422034444

7

Jalgaon

0257-2220400/2220500

0257-2260401

9822362620

8

Parbhani

0245-2223555/2223774

02452222444

9422885511

9

Sholapur

0217-2731000-2624000/2621120

02172731024

9766620000

10

Thane

022-25344041/25349200

25329191

9869250903

11

Latur

0238-2243001/2242330

02382221001

9763400000

12

Mumbai-City

022-22662440/22661239

-

9820747298

13

Buldhana

0726-2242307/2242289

0726-2242888

9833108858

14

Dhule

0256-2288701/2288715

02562288702

9422259897

15

Kolhpur

0231-2654811,2666751/2650501

0231-2656006

8275162400

16

Nanded

0246-2237101/2238500

0246-2253001

8275196777

17

Raigad

0214-1222001,222118/1222025

0214-1222002

9423777740

18

Amravati

0721-2662522/2662843

0721-2662112

9890099794

19

Nashik

0253-2578500,2578700/2575703

025325786000

8652783333

20

Wardha

0715-2240102/2240533

0715-2240101

9422595959

21

Ahmednagar

0241-245001/2322432

0241-2345000

9422502212

22

Beed

0244-2222201/2222011

0244-2222202

7507070775

23

Bhandara

07184-254555/252312

07184-254666

8888894154

24

Gadchiroli

0713-2222001/2222022

0713-2222002

9403774877

25

Jalna

0248-2224700/2225326

02482225701

7798977831

26

Osmanabad

0247-224501/228018

0247-2224601

7350706060

27

Ratnagiri

0235-222301/2226250

0235-2222302

9604998685

28

Sangli

0233-2373001/2326710

0233-2373003

9422645400

29

Satara

0216-2232750/2230310

02162232751

9423009326

30

Sindudurg

0236-2228844/2228589

02362229029

9403079262

31

Yavatmal

0723-2242501/2242211

07232242301

9420492277

32

Nandurbar

0256-4221001/4210041

02564221002

9420486486

33

Washim

0725-2233400/2232858

0725-2233401

9850055885

34

Gondia

0718-2236149/2233886

0718-22236348

9422644441

35

Hingoli

0245-6221701/6222400

02456220250

9881944159

 

Details of SSP/SP’s of District Maharashtra


S.No

Name District

Mobile

Office No

Residential No

Fax No

1.

Thane Area

900445117

022-27471440

022-24323216

2 7471403

2.

Thane Vill

9823469902

022-25343027

-

24349474

3.

Raigarh

9820758595

02141-222093

222008

222900

4.

Ratnagiri

9823872072

02352-225077

225088

222875

5.

Sindhudurg

8806881999

02362-228201

228220-11

228229

6.

Kolhapur

8806940000

02312656568

2656569

2667533

7.

Kolhapur Village

9923527171

0231-2653960

2653961

2667212

8.

Sangli

75074911000

0233-2672323

2671221

2672323

9.

Satara

86525473333

02162-232225

232224

230232

10.

Pune Village

8888279000

020-25657878

-

25674641

11.

Solapur Village

8108145550

0217-2732001

-

2732008

12.

Nasik Area

9757410667

0253-2598720

2598730

2598099

13.

Nasik Village

7507409717

0253-2309700

2309701

2575586

14.

Jalgaon

9823710147

0257-2220411

2220429

2220499

15.

Dhule

9158547000

02562-288200

288201

229188

16.

Ahmadnagar

9821892949

0241-2416101

2416102

2416133

17.

Nandurbar

8975288036

02564-210201

210102

210100

18.

Aurangabad Area

9823133300

02402331473

2334878

2358733

19.

Aurangabad Village

9923700960

0240-2380808

2381414

2392633

20.

Usmanabad

7738600009

02472227620

227629

227626

21.

Beed

9823699000

02442-222301

222302

223414

22.

Jalana

8007611453

02482-225601

225401

225352

23.

Nanded Area

9890579876

02462241316

254602

251459

24.

Nanded

9158888640

02462-234504

234503

235103

25.

Hingoli

9870453900

02456-221744

221444

223233

26.

Parbhani

9604303333

0252-223444

223333

223957

27.

Latur

9823789222

02382-243000

221900

243633

28.

Nagpur Area

9822943358

07122560811

2565252

2528318

29.

Nagpur Village

9422614743

0712-2562139

2566662

2560771

30.

Vardha

88888848445

07152-232501

-

232529

31.

Bhandara

9421887774

07184-252440

252208

236100

32.

Chandrapur

8007641595

07172-255100

255202

2255800

33.

Godia

9423597949

07182236293

202023

236100

34.

Gadchiroli

9823623210

07132-222151

222151

222159

35.

Amravati

9892744040

07212663226

2664277

2663256

36.

Amravati Village

9823129009

0721-2662007

2664800

2665041

37.

Akola

9923490048

0724-2435002

2535001

2435574

38.

Buldhana

9011201999

07262-242395

-

242243

39.

Washin

8804007104

07252-232134

232001

233191

40.

Yawatmal

8888310000

07232-256701

256702

239669

41.

Pune Railway

9923427025

02025540070

-

25541639

42.

Nagpur Railway

-

07122702104

-

2541331

 

 


View Maharashtra Darshan in a larger map

Disasters threaten sustainable economic development worldwide. In the past twenty years, earthquakes, floods, tropical storms, droughts and other calamities have killed around three million people, inflicted injury, disease, homelessness, and misery on one billion others, and caused damage worth millions of rupees. Disasters destroy decades of human effort and investments, thereby placing new demands on society for reconstruction and rehabilitation.

Risk is the probability that injury to life or damage to property and the environment will occur. The extent to which risk is either increased or diminished is the result of the interaction of a multitude of causation chains of events. (Terry Jeggle and Rob Stephenson, Concepts of Hazard and Vulnerability Analysis).

The dominant physical trait of the state of Maharashtra is its plateau character. The state is covered by the Satpura range on its northern side while Ajanta and Satmala ranges run through the central part of the state.The Arabian sea guards the western boundary of Maharashtra with a coastal line of 720 kilometres. Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh form the states boundaries on its northern side with the latter also covering the eastern region while Goa, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh are on the Southern side.

The state receives its rainfall chiefly from the southwesterly winds. Normally, there are heavy rains in the coastal region (around 2000 mm), scanty rains in the rain-shadow regions in the central part (around 500 mm) and medium rains in the eastern part of the state (around 1000 mm).

 

Indian Peninsula and Maharashtra

During its evolution, the Indian peninsula was subjected to intense tectonic forces due to which numerous folds, faults and fractures have been developed in the ancient rocks of this land mass. peninsular India is classified as a stable continental region.

The earthquakes in a stable continental area, such as the one at Killari on 30th September 1993, were caused by adjustments of crustal blocks along such pre-existing weak zones. Isolated seismic activity within the shield is indicative of the movements going on along some of the old basement faults, perhaps at a very slow rate.

The state of Maharashtra and its adjoining areas form part of the peninsular shield of India. The state of Maharashtra occupies the central-western portion of peninsular India, technically an intraplate continental area. Most of Maharashtra is covered by the deccan traps, a sequence of basalt flows placed about 65 million years ago. In most of the area, these flows are nearly horizontal, demonstrating that tectonic deformation accumulated is very little or nil. Though this area was treated as seismically stable with no potential for disastrous earthquakes, this belief was shattered by the Koyna earthquake of December 11, 1967, with magnitude of 6.5 on the Richter Scale. Recent Latur earthquake of September 30, 1993, having magnitude 6.4 which occurred well within the central part of the shield led to a review of the seismic activity in the stable shield zone.

Thus, tectonic stability in the deccan plateau may appear to be inconsistent with the observed level of seismicity. This apparent contradiction reflects the primitive stage of knowledge about seismogenesis in stable continental region, and is the root of problem of rise assessment of an earthquake. Thus the potentially active tectonic features which could produce earthquakes with engineering consequences need to be studied.

It may be noted that stable continental region worldwide are characterized by a very large number of unknown faults that can at some point produce an earthquake. Many of these faults may be located in areas that have low or no seismicity and are technically stable.

Maharashtra and adjoining regions are prone to earthquakes of moderate magnitude as can be seen from the experience of several years. Koyna regions experiences the maximum number of tremors in Maharashtra. Excluding the Koyna region, and other regions of Killari, Khardi (Bhatsa) and Medhi (Surya), appendix III lists 137 earthquakes of which 121 earthquakes of magnitude about 3.0 or above are in Maharashtra and 16 are in the adjoining regions. Table II gives a list of the major earthquake occurrences in Maharashtra.

 

Major Earthquakes in Maharashtra

 

Pattern of seismicity

The Deouskar committee report of 1995 presents the pattern of seismicity in Maharashtra. The above map indicates the location of areas which have experienced earthquakes till date. The study reports that :

Earthquakes in Maharashtra show major alignment along the west coast and western ghats region. Seismic activity can be seen near Ratnagiri, along the western coast, Koyna Nagar, Bhatsa and Surya areas of Thane district.

The north - south trend further continues deep inside Gujarat. The striking characteristic of this narrow region is its alignment with the hot spring belt. It appears that the off - coast activity is associated with submerged faults along the west coast of Maharashtra.

In north Maharashtra, the seismic activity near Dhule, Akola, Jalgaon and Amravati could be due to movements on the faults present in the area associated with the complex system of Narmada, Tapi and Purna lineaments. However, the exact seismic status of these lineaments needs to be evaluated with extensive monitoring.

In north - east corner of Maharashtra, the earthquake activity in Nagpur and Bhandara districts may be associated with Deolapar thrust or sheared and faulted zones of Ramtek and Sakoli Basins. This needs to be confirmed.

Isolated activity is seen near Beed, Nanded, Ujjani and Solapur in eastern Maharashtra and Uran, Kolhapur and Sindhudurga in south-west Maharashtra. These activities may be due to movements on local faults in the basement.

Seismicity is also seen near Bhatsanagar and Suryanagar. Recently, isolated activity also occurred in Latur-Osmanabad districts in south-east Maharashtra.

 

Future Risk Analysis

Based on the earthquakes occurred so far in the state and considering the seismic pattern, a rezoning, for new dam designs only, has been proposed by the Deouskar Committee for the state of Maharashtra. The existing and the proposed zoning map is presented below. It may be noted that even after using sophisticated techniques like carbon dating, it has not been possible to identify whether the fault is active. If some seismicity is associated with a major lineament, it can be considered as an active tectonic feature for the purpose of engineering seismic risk analysis and these regions can be considered as risk prone.

The west coast - Western Ghats seismogenic region is the most active area in the Maharashtra state. The Koyna-Warna and the Bhatsa areas are located in this region. Even before the occurrence of the Koyna earthquake of 11 December, 1967, with magnitude 6.5, earthquakes with magnitude of about 6.0 are known to have occurred in this region. The report further observes that :

The activity in the Koyna-Warna region has been continuing for the past three decades with occasional spurts, producing events with magnitude above 5.0. This trend is expected to continue in future.

Bhatsa region experienced a swarm of seismic activity during 1983-84, with a maximum magnitude of 4.9. The activity has died down since then with only a temporary spurt in 1990.

The Surya area about 50 km. north-west of Bhatsa, has recently shown increase in seismic activity. The energy in Bhatsa-Surya region may not have been fully released and possibility of an earthquake with a magnitude of around 6.0 in future, cannot be ruled out.

Further south of Warna, some micro seismic activity has been reported in the past. Because this region lies in the active west coast-Western Ghats, the possibility of a maximum magnitude earthquake of around 6.0 cannot be ruled out in future.

There was no evidence of any significant seismic activity in the Latur-Osmanabad area in the known past. Also, the tectonic features to which the Killari earthquake of 30 September, 1993, could be attributed are not known sufficiently. However, the occurrence of Killari earthquake of moderate magnitude of 6.4 gives an indication of neotectonic activity in the area. Though, the stress has been released at Killari, a similar magnitude earthquake at some other place in the area cannot be ruled out.

Before the Killari earthquake, infrequent tremors and subterranean sounds had been reported in the area. Similar instances were also reported from many other locations in Beed, Parbhani and Nanded districts. In the absence of knowledge about any seismotectonic features in this area, low to moderate earthquakes can be experienced.

In addition to the above seismogenic regions in Maharashtra, the Narmada-Tapi region covering the border areas of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh states has been reported to be active since historical times. Tense fracturing, alignment of hot springs and locations of epicenters in these areas leads to the conclusion that these two are the zones of crustal weakness in Maharashtra.

The Tapi and the Purna lineaments in the northern part of Maharashtra have been recognized as active faults with potential to generate low magnitude earthquakes. The Tapi lineament represents a line of crustal weakness along which activity has been recurrent during different periods. Earthquakes above magnitude 6.0 are known to have occurred in the northern parts of this region across the border of Maharashtra.

According to a scientist, there is a major anticipated zone of uplift in the Sangola area and another to the east of Sholapur. Vertical movements of these crustal blocks may cause seismic disturbances in the areas, as has happened in Killari .

Due to increasing trend of seismic activity noticed in Maharashtra in recent times, earthquakes with low magnitudes around 4 to 4.5 may occur in areas where there has been no seismic activity in the past.

 

Cyclones - Potential Impact

Cyclones are considered as one of the most damaging natural disasters. They make impact by killing people, damaging property, crops and infrastructure. In the rural areas, the damage is primarily to lives, crops and to housing. It may also affect the irrigation infrastructure. The damage to forest and plantations, when it occurs, has a long term effect, and also takes a much longer period for restoration. In urban areas, both transport and communication receive a serious damage, in addition to loss of life and shelter.

As mentioned above, cyclones rise in the seas and get calm when it comes in contact with the land. Thus, the coastal areas are very much at risk to cyclones. Maharashtra has a coastal belt of over 720 kilometers between Gujarat to Goa. Thus the Konkan region including Mumbai becomes prone to the risk of cyclones. There are 386 marine fishing villages / hamlets with 17,918 boats engaged in fishing in this coastal belt.

History of Cyclones in Maharashtra

In the Arabian sea, during the period 1890-1995, 207 depressions/cyclonic storms/severe cyclonic storms have been recorded. Most of them have moved away from Maharashtra. Thus, the coastal region of Maharashtra is climatologically an area where frequency of cyclonic disturbances is very low. Out of 207 disturbances, only 19 have affected Maharashtra - Goa coast. Of these six were major ones causing 70 deaths, with 150 boats and 160 crew missing and extensive damage to trees and ships. Some of these which made an impact on Maharashtra are listed below. The wind and cyclone hazard map for Maharashtra has also been produced indicating the risk zones according to possible impact.

List of Cyclones:

Thus, in spite of having a long coastal region, Maharashtra has experienced only 6 cyclones in last 50 years, though there have been numerous threats. Thus climatologically, this area is having low risk of cyclone strikes.

Mumbai which is the economic capital of India, is also a coastal city which has faced many threats of cyclones in recent times. It has faced peripheral impact in 1982, 1988 and October 1996 (a note on October'96 episode is given in Appendix I), and has been hit on two occasions (June, 1996 and 1948). It indicates that the city is prone to cyclones. Considering the problems the Indian economy may have to face if Mumbai is hit by a cyclone, it becomes far more important to implement preventive and preparedness measures here.

 

Warning Systems

Presently, Area Cyclone Warning Centre, Colaba, Mumbai, is responsible for issue of cyclone warning bulletins for Arabian sea north of Latitude 5 deg N and east of Longitude 60 deg E excluding the area north of 20 deg N and west of 68 deg E. According to the two stage warning scheme, ACWC, Mumbai, issues warnings for coastal districts of Goa and Maharashtra in 2 stages.

Whenever the coastal belt is expected to experience adverse weather (heavy rain/gales/tidal wave) in association with a cyclonic storm or depression likely intensify into a cyclonic storm ACWC, Mumbai, issues warnings for coastal districts of Goa and Maharashtra in two stages under two stage warning scheme.

• Cyclone alert (lst stage warning) : It is issued 48 hrs in advance of expected commencement of adverse weather over coastal areas.

• Cyclone warning (2nd stage warning): It is issued 24 hours in advance of expected commencement of adverse weather.

• Frequency of issue and mode of communication :

 

Chief secretary, collectors and other address: Twice a day at 1330 hrs

and 21.30hrs by telegram/ telefax.

 

AIR Mumbai, Ratnagiri : Every 3hrs by telegram and every hour

whenever the system is close to coast and is tracked by the cyclone

detection radar.

• Automation of cyclone warning bulletin : The preparation of cyclone warning,/alert message has been computerised.

• Main mode of communication of cyclone warnings is by telegram -000 weather immediate telegram, Telex, W/T (full-form), Telephone, Fax, Police wireless if other channels fail and satellite communication (disaster warning system).

New scheme of dissemination of cyclone warnings has been introduced by issuing VSAT where the cyclone messages prepared by ACWC, Mumbai, are transmitted to the satellite uplink station at Yeour (Mumbai). From the satellite earth station at Yeour, the messages are sent to the satellite with appropriate instructions to communicate and activate only those receivers located at the particular areas where storm is likely to cross. The receiving system is a dish antenna, which receives the signals and converts into audio messages. An audio alarm proceeds the bulletin. The DWS receiver has been installed in the east coast and installation in west coast is in progress in different places while in DWS phase III. 8 stations in coastal Maharashtra and 12 stations in Gujarat are planned. Goa is one of them.

 

Floods

Floods affect Maharashtra quite frequently. Also, floods are not just restricted to one particular region, but are spread all over the state. Maharashtra, therefore, exhibits a high proneness to floods. Most floods occur during monsoon and hence, the accompanying damage such as deaths due to lightning, landslides, house crashes and drowning have been commonly reported from most districts. Floods kill by destroying houses, crops and food stocks. They strip farm lands, wash away irrigation systems and erode large areas of land or make them unusable otherwise. Floods are more threatening for an agricultural economy such as that of Maharashtra, especially because of the heavy damage they cause, thereby disrupting the economy. It may be noted that there are lots of man-made reasons for the occurrence of floods. Analyzing the floods in Maharashtra, one observes that most floods in Maharashtra are flash floods due to nallah-overflows and poor drainage systems. Very few floods, like the one in Konkan in 1983, are due to heavy rains in the region.