Earlier, the approach to Disaster Management has been primarily reactive and relief centric. A paradigm shift has now taken place at the national level from the erstwhile response centric approach to holistic and integrated management of disasters with emphasis on prevention, mitigation and preparedness. These efforts are aimed to conserve developmental gains and also minimize losses to lives, livelihood and property. Prevention and mitigation contribute to lasting improvement in safety.
Project on deployment of Mobile Radiation Detection Systems(MRDS) to handle Radiological Hazards in Metros/Capital Cities/Big Cities in India:- To detect unclaimed radioactive materials/substances and save public from its hazardous effects,NDMA has chalked out a plan to provide States/UTs Mobile Radiation Detection Systems to be deployed in Metros/all Capital Cities and Big Cities in India and also train personnels as ‘Trainer of Trainers’. Landslide Risk Mitigation Scheme (LRMS)
The Scheme envisages financial support for site specific Landslide Mitigation Projects recommended by landslide prone States, covering “disaster prevention strategy, disaster mitigation and R& D in monitoring of critical Landslides” thereby leading to the development of Early Warning System and Capacity Building initiatives. The Scheme is under preparation. Flood Risk Mitigation Scheme (FRMS)The Scheme covers activities like a) Pilot Projects for development of model Multi-Purpose Flood Shelters and b) Development of River Basin specific Flood Early Warning System and Digital Elevation Maps for preparation of Inundation Models for giving early warning to the villagers for evacuation in case of flood. Under the Scheme, financial support is to be provided to the Flood prone States for undertaking pilot scheme in respect of above two activities. The Scheme is under preparation.
Core Group for Preparation of Guidelines to avert Boat Tragedies in India:- In view of some serious boat tragedies taking place in the country, including the boat tragedy in Dhubri, Assam in May, 2012, leading to loss of lives of people, on the request of Min. of Home Affairs, NDMA on the request of MHA has constituted a Core Group / Working Groups consisting of representatives of concerned Departments of Central/State Governments and other Organizations to formulate suitable guidelines on the subject for the guidance of States/UTs to avert such boat mishaps in India. The deliberations of Working Groups are on.
Project:- National Earthquake Risk Mitigation Project (Preparatory Phase)
- National Earthquake Risk Mitigation (Preparatory phase) has been approved as a Centrally Sponsored Plan Scheme with an outlay of Rs.24.87 crore, to be implemented within a period of two years (2013-15).
- The major components of National Earthquake Risk Mitigation (Preparatory phase) and their cost are as under:
State/UT District City Population
Andaman North & Middle Andaman Port Blair 105539 5 Yes Arunachal Pradesh Papumpare Itanagar 176385 5 Yes Assam Kamrup Metropolitan Guwahati 5 Yes Bihar Patna Patna 4 Yes Chandigarh Chandigarh Chandigarh 1054686 4 Yes Delhi NCT Delhi Delhi 4 Yes Gujarat Rajkot Rajkot 4 No Haryana Faridabad Faridabad 4 No Haryana Gurugram Gurugram 1514085 4 No J&K Srinagar Srinagar 5 Yes J&K Jammu Jammu 4 Himachal Pradesh Shimla Shimla 813384 4 Yes Maharashtra Pune Pune 4 No Meghalaya East Khasi Hills Shillong 5 Yes Mizoram Aziwal Aziwal 404054 5 Yes Nagaland Kohima Kohima 270063 5 Yes Manipur Imphal East & West Imphal 967344 5 Yes Punjab Ludhiana Ludhiana 4 Sikkim East Sikkim Gangtok 281293 4 Yes Tripura West Tripura Agartala 5 Yes UP Ghaziabad Ghaziabad 4 No UP Gautam Budha Nagar Noida 4 No UP Gorakhpur Gorakhpur 4 No Uttaranchal Dehradun Dehradun 1698560 4 Yes West Bengal Kolkata Kolkata 4486679 3 Yes Total 70189371
Note: 16 of the 25 cities targeted are state capitals. Total population to be covered is
- Techno-legal Regime which involves adoption, enforcement and updation of Techno-legal Regime in concerned Cities/States -- Rs.8.20 Crore
- Institutional Strengthening which involves Capacity Building of education and research in colleges and institutes -- Rs.9.52 crore
- Capacity Building of practicing architects, engineers and Masons in earthquake resistant construction techniques -- Rs. 3.85 crore
- Public Awareness & Sensitization at National level and all vulnerable States -- Rs. 1.88 Crore
- Project Management--Rs.1.42 Crore
- The project is to be implemented by NDMA in coordination with the State Governments/UT that lie in seismic zones IV & V in the country.State-wise list of the Cities/Districts to be covered under the Preparatory phase is as under:-
- Key Outcomes of the NERMP Preparatory Phase are as under:-
- Increased awareness of the key stakeholders on the need for adoption of model building bye-laws and earthquake resistant construction and planning standards.
- Pursuance for adoption of model building bye-laws at the city and state levels in all targeted 21 States/UTs in the seismic Zone V & IV.
- Pursuance for making available of NBC 2005 in the Public Domain.
- Promotion of earthquake resistant construction practices.
- Capacity Building at State/City Level to sustain the efforts of the project.
- Training of Trainers programme for 210 faculty members/teachers
- Week long orientation of 450 trainers.
- Capacity building of 750 civil engineers, 1050 architects and 1500 masons in targeted states/UTs.
- Strengthening of facilities of participating institutes (particularlythe District level ITIs/Polytechnics).
- Focused earthquake awareness campaigns in targeted States/ UTs.
In addition to the above following Schemes/Studies/activities are also currently being undertaken:-
- Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Buildings Types in India
The work for preparation of catalogue of different building types in various parts of India and development of vulnerability functions for a number of different building types appearing in the building catalogues has been awarded to IIT Bombay in association with four different nodal institutions in different parts of the country viz, (1) IIT Roorkee – North Zone, (2) IIT Kharagpur-East Zone, (3) IIT Guwahati-North East Region, (4) IIT Bombay-West Zone, and (5) IIT Madras-South Zone.IIT, Bombay has prepared Draft Final Report.
- Preparation of Upgraded earthquake Hazards Maps
As per the recommendations of the Working Committee of Experts (Geophysical-Hazards), NDMA hasundertaken a project through Building Materials Technology Promotion Council (BMTPC) for upgradation of Earthquake Hazards Maps for the country.
- Project on Research on soil piping in the highlands and foothills of Kerala to avoid the disaster.
Soil piping is a recently noticed phenomenon in Kerala. It is a sub-surface soil erosion process which is dangerous disaster since the soil erosion takes place beneath the soil. This phenomenon is new and requires proper instrumentation for studying this and suggesting measures for mitigation. Government of Kerala through the Center for Earth Science studies (CESS) with financial assistance from NDMA is undertaking Soil Piping Project to study this phenomenon and suggest measures to avoid a disaster.
- Early Warning System for flash flood in the Meenachil & Manimala in Kerala
NDMA is financing the proposal of Mission for Geospatial Applications(MGA), Department of Science and Technology for River Monitoring, Modeling and development of Early Warning System for monitoring of Flash Flood in the Meenachil and Manimala river basins in Kerala for Disaster Management Department, Government of Kerala.
- A Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) for Landslide Mitigation and Management in India has been constituted by Ministry of Mines on the initiative of NDMA and as per recommendationsof NDMA Guidelines on Management of Landslide and Snow Avalanches (2009).
- For flood protection, NDMA is coordinating with MoWR/CWC and Survey of India for steering and approval of project for River Bathymetric Survey and Preparation of Digital Elevation Models (DEM with 0.5/1.0 CI on Scale 1:10K) by Survey of India, which will be funded by MoWR
Role and Responsibilities
To conceptualize and fix contours and definition of mitigation projects along with the identification and description of the various interventions required. These tasks will be carried out through an inclusive and participatory process involving extensive consultation with the Central Ministries/Departments/State Governments/Union Territories and other stakeholders.
To formulate Detailed Project Reports (DPRs) duly describing all the support systems, i.e. financial technical and managerial resources as well as the techno-legal regimes required. For this experts/agencies need to be engaged, on an as required basis in terms of the Government rules and regulations.